Recursion: An Indispensable Tool For Every Functional Programmer [Example With Insertion Sort]

This is the first of a series of articles that illustrates functional programming (FP) concepts to imperative programmers. As you go through these articles with code examples in Haskell (one of the most popular FP languages), you gain the grounding for picking up any FP languages quickly. Why should you…

Why you should learn functional programming

Why you should learn functional programming Many of the widely used languages (including C++, Java, and Javascript) are imperative.  In imperative programming, computations are structured as sequences of instructions that operate by making modifications to the state of the program.  Functional languages operate by declaring functions. The output value of…

Dependent types: formal definition and examples

Dependent types have been gaining a lot of attention among programmers. Some would say it’s “the next thing” in programming. Why is it gaining popularity? In this post, I hope to show some of the advantages of dependent types and get you started on programming in dependent types. To understand…

Programming with Envelopes in OCaml and Haskell

In this post, I continue going through the famous paper “Functional Programming with Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire” by Meijer et al.  They show that we can treat recursions as separate higher order functions known as recursion schemes.  Each of the four things in the paper title corresponds to…

Using Unfolds to Iterate in Haskell and OCaml

This post picks up from where we left off here, in which I explained anamorphisms.  Here we look at another example of applying unfolds: iterate.  Iterate Iterate is one of the most common uses of unfold.  The definition of the iterate function is: iterate f x = Cons (x, iterate…

Why Blockchain Engineers Should Learn Functional Programming

As a software engineer who wants to work with blockchains, you may ask: what languages should I learn?  Answers on the internet (e.g., here, here, and here) mostly recommend prominent languages like C++, Python, Java, and Javascript, and the smart contract language Solidity.  None of them mention any functional languages! …

Programming with Lenses in Haskell and OCaml

In this post, I continue going through the famous paper “Functional Programming with Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire” by Meijer et al.  They show that we can treat recursions as separate higher order functions known as recursion schemes.  Each of the four things in the paper title corresponds to…